In these labs the goal was to observe and draw emission spectrums and observe the flames of the elements to find what element X was. An emission spectrum is the light that is emitted by an element, or a compound, that is shown when the electrons become excited and emit photons. The elements will be given energy by fire in the flame test, and by an electrical current in the vacuums. The lights emmitted are formed when an electron goes from a higher enegy state, excited state, to a lower enegy level, the ground state being the lowest. We used diffraction glasses to observe the spectrums produced in the emission spectrum lab and looked for the color of the flame and any changes that occurred with the flame test. Our hypothesis was that for the emission spectrum lab there would be unique differences in the spectrums produced, we also believed that the argon and neon samples would look the same as they are both noble gases and have eight valence electrons a piece. Our hyposthesis for the flame test was that element X would be lithium, the liquid looked the same for both solution however there were 6 clear solution that could’ve been element X.
1. Diffraction glasses.
2. Vacuums with argon, neon, hydrogen, mercury, neon, and iodine.
3. Incandescent lights.
4. Flurorescent lights.
5. .5 M solutions of 1.barium chloride, 2.calcium chloride, 3.potassium chloride, 4.copper sulfate, 5.copper chloride, 6.strontium chloride, 7.sodium chloride, 8. cobalt chloride
6. Unknown substance.
7. 1 M hydrochloric acid
8. Saftety goggles and apron.
9. Bunsen burner.
10. Flame igniter.
11. Plate with small groves.
13. Platinum wire
14. 2 cobalt glass plates
1. Turn off lights in room.
2. Place on diffraction glasses.
3. Observe different colored bands in elements.
4. Use colored pencils to draw the spectrum of each element.
5. Get elements in to separate wells on a plate.
6. Place platinum wire in cork.
7. Turn on bunsen burner, make sure oxygen valve is open 2/3 of way.
8. Use igniter to start fire
9. Twist gas nob to get flame to a height of 2-3 inches.
10. Burn platinum wire to ensure it’s not contaminated.
11. Place platinum wire tip in one well.
12. Place platinum wire over ther fire and obsrve changes.
13. Test the same element agin to ensure the proper color was seen.
14. Place platinum wire in hydrochloric acid, and burn it to ensure no contamination.
15. Repeat steps 11-14 for rest of elements.
Data and Calculations:
The data that we concluded from this lab was that all elements have a unique emission spectrun and that element X was barium.
Metallic Ion in Compound
Color of Flame
Sodium (cobalt glass)
Potassium (cobalt glass)
Sodium and pottasium
Sodium and potassium (cobalt glass)
The results of this lab were obvious, other than finding element X. The obvious part was that every element would have a unique spectum as no two elements have the same number of electrons, or electron configuration. The hardest part of the lab was to find out was element X was, after buring all the elements it was very easy however. Our hypothesis of there being a unique spectrum for all elements was correct as the electrons, and electron configurations in different elements can’t be the same. Our hypothesis for the flame test was incorrect as lithium was not element X, but rather barium. There were six metallic ion solutions which looked like just like element X’s solutiuon, so the possibility of guessing which one was element X was 16.66%. We did notice that neon and argon had somewhat similar spectrums due to them being noble gases, but they were still different from one another.Some future considerations I have for this lab would be to allow for the diffraction glasses to be used with the flame testing, this could be rather dangerous however but would be very cool to see the spectrum change from a regular fire to a clored fire due to the burning of metallic ions.